. Which of the following includes all the others? A) atom B) cell C) organism D) population 2. In science, a hypothesis must be A) testable B) derived from a theory C) a known fact D) able to be proven absolutely true

Question 1. Which of the following includes all the others? A) atom B) cell C) organism D) population 2. In science, a hypothesis must be A) testable B) derived from a theory C) a known fact D) able to be proven absolutely true 3. A chlorine atom has 17 protons, 18 neutrons, and 17 electrons. The atomic number of chlorine is A) 8 B) 17 C) 35 D) 52 4. If you place the probe of a pH meter in lye or sodium hydroxide (NaOH), it will read pH 14. Sodium hydroxide is A) an acid B) neutral C) a base 5. This polysaccharide forms fibers that are a major component of plant cell walls: A) glucose B) starch C) cellulose D) glycogen 6. Which of these types of molecules contain nitrogen? A) polysaccharides B) proteins C) steroids 7. Fats contain more energy per gram than carbohydrates or proteins because A) fat molecules contain a lower percentage of oxygen atoms B) fat molecules contain a lower percentage of hydrogen atoms C) fat molecules contain a lower percentage of carbon atoms D) fat molecules contain a higher percentage of adipose atoms 8. Prokaryotic cells, with no nucleus or membranous organelles, are found in A) animals B) bacteria C) fungi D) plants 9. The main function of a ribosome is to A) extract energy from glucose B) synthesize glucose C) store food in the form of fat D) synthesize proteins 10. Mitochondria A) package proteins for secretion from cell B) contain chromosomes C) are sites of oxidation of glucose to generate ATP D) synthesize proteins 11. The plasma membrane consists of A) a single layer of phospholipid molecules B) a double layer of phospholipid molecules in which proteins are embedded C) several layers of protein and carbohydrate molecules D) a triple layer of phospholipids and carbohydrates 12. The movement of molecules from a region of low concentration across a membrane to a region of high concentration by use of ATP energy is A) active transport B) diffusion C) passive transport D) osmosis 13. The oxygen in our atmosphere is produced by A) greenhouse effect B) cellular respiration C) photosynthesis D) volcanic eruptions 14. Yeast cells break down glucose anaerobically into A) ethanol and CO2 B) lactic acid and CO2 C) lactic acid and H2O D) ethanol and H2O 15. Carbon dioxide is released in A) the light-dependent phase of photosynthesis B) the Krebs cycle C) glycolysis D) the Calvin cycle 16. If the concentration of glucose in the water outside of a cell is lower than the concentration inside A) water will tend to enter the cell by osmosis B) water will tend to leave the cell by osmosis C) glucose will tend to enter the cell by osmosis D) glucose will tend to leave the cell by osmosis 17. What happens if a red blood cell is placed in a hypertonic solution? A) the cell will shrink B) the cell will swell and may burst C) the cell will remain the same size 18. Which of the following is not a characteristic of enzymes? A) they are proteins B) they speed up the rate of chemical reactions C) they act on specific substances called substrates D) they are used up in each reaction, thus need to be produced in large quantities 19. Which of these does not have to be present for photosynthesis to occur? A) water B) carbon dioxide C) glucose D) chlorophyll 20. Each new cell produced by this process will have an identical copy of all chromosomes and genes possessed by the parent cell: A) mitosis B) meiosis 21. During the first division of meiosis, A) chromosomes separate at the centromere B) homologous chromosomes separate C) chromosomes become triploid 22. If a normal parent and an albino parent have albino child, the genotypes of the parents are A) AA x Aa B) Aa x Aa C) Aa x aa D) aa x aa 23. The number of chromosomes in a human egg cell is A) 4 B) 23 C) 46 D) 48 24. A change in DNA base sequence from CATAC to CACAC would describe A) translation B) replication C) transcription D) mutation 25. Which of these processes does notoccur in the nucleus? A) DNA replication B) transcription C) translation 26. tRNA molecules contain anticodons and carry amino acids to be used in this process: A) mutation B) DNA replication C) transcription D) translation 27. Exchange of genes between maternal and paternal chromosomes before the first division of meiosis is caused by A) X-linkage B) crossing over C) replication D) cytokinesis 28. Which is not a subunit of DNA? A) adenine B) guanine C) uracil D) phosphate 29. A karyotype of an individual with Down syndrome has how many chromosomes? A) 3 B) 23 C) 46 D) 47 30. If a heterozygous male mates with an albino female, what percentage of albino children would be expected? A) 0% B) 25% C) 50% D) 75% E) 100% 31. A father with genotype IAIB and mother with phenotype O could produce children with these blood types: A) AB only B) A and B only C) A, B, and AB only D) A, B, AB, and O 32. During DNA replication, an old DNA strand with base sequence ATCTGAGTA would serve as a template to form a new complementary strand with the base sequence: A) TAGACTCAT B) ATCTGAGTA C) AUCUCUGUA 33. In peas, tall (T) is dominant to dwarf (t) and, on a separate chromosome set, purple flower (P) is dominant to white flower (p). If Gregor Mendel crosses the genotypes TtPp and ttPp, what is the expected ratio of phenotypes in the offspring? A) 9/16 tall purple flowered, 3/16 tall white, 3/16 dwarf purple, 1/16 dwarf white B) 3/8 tall purple flowered, 1/8 tall white, 3/8 dwarf purple, 1/8 dwarf white C) 1/4 tall purple flowered, 1/4 tall white, 1/4 dwarf purple, 1/4 dwarf white D) 3/4 tall purple flowered, 1/4 dwarf white 34. Queen Victoria’s son Leopold had hemophilia, which is caused by a sex-linked recessive gene (Xh). Leopold lived to be 31 years old and fathered a normal daughter. What is the genotype of his daughter? A) XHXH B) XHXh C) XhXh D) XHY 35. Microevolution by genetic drift is more likely in A) large populations B) small populations 36. New alleles appear in a species by A) genetic drift B) mutation C) gene flow D) natural selection 37. The insect wing, bat wing, and bird wing are A) analogous structures B) homologous structures 38. Speciation is most likely when a huge continental population of a snail species A) undergoes genetic drift B) is forced north by global warming C) is divided in two over the eons by the rise of a mountain range 39. Groups of organisms that interbreed in nature and are reproductively isolated from other such groups defines A) communities B) hybrids C) families D) species 40. Certain species of ants protect, and receive food from, certain species of acacia trees in the tropics. This exemplifies A) predation B) mutualism C) competition 41. The most important cause of species extinction due to humans in recent centuries is A) disease B) global warming C) genetic engineering D) habitat loss 42. If the decomposers were removed from an ecosystem, the other organisms would eventually die because A) green plants would run out of necessary minerals in the soil B) green plants would lose their energy source C) herbivores must eat decomposers D) decomposers release oxygen needed by the other organisms 43. The source of energy for an ecosystem is A) nutrients in the soil B) water C) sunlight D) recycled energy from decomposers 44. Fungi are primarily A) producers B) herbivores C) carnivores D) decomposers 45. If deer are placed on an island with a constant, renewable food supply and a stable biological community with predators, the growth curve after several decades would be described as a A) J-curve [exponential] B) S-curve [logistic] 46. Professor Hotsun is studying a desert ecosystem containing fig trees, fig-eating rats, rateating snakes, and snake-eating lizards. If the fig trees produce one million kcal of energy, about how much energy would be contained in the population ofrat-eating snakes? A) 100,000 kcal B) 50,000 kcal C) 10,000 kcal D) 1000 kcal 47. Colorblindness (Xb) is X-linked and recessive. Blondie is normal, and not a carrier, but her husband Dagwood is colorblind. If their daughter Cookie marries a colorblind man, what phenotypes can Cookie expect in her sons? A) all normal B) all colorblind C) 1/2 colorblind, 1/2 normal 48. John has type A blood. John’s father has type O blood. Mary has type B blood. Mary’s mother is type A. The possible blood types of John and Mary’s daughters are A) AB only B) A or AB only C) B or AB only D) A, B, AB or O Here is a list of mRNA codons and their amino acids. Use this information to answer #49 and #50: AAU – asparagine AUC – isoleucine CAA – glutamine CAU – histidine CGU – arginine CUU – leucine GAA – glutamate GAU – aspartate GCA – alanine GGC – glycine UGU – cysteine 49. The sequence of amino acids of Arginine-Alanine-Leucine would be coded by this sequence of bases on mRNA : A) CGUGCACUU B) GUGCACAA C) GCACGTGAA D) GAAGCAGGC 50. A sequence of bases on a DNA strand of GAATTACGT would code for this amino acid sequence: A) Leucine-Asparagine-Alanine B) Aspartate-Glutamate-Alanine C) Glutamine-Cysteine- Histidine D) Leucine-Glutamate-Histidine

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