Posted: February 2nd, 2017
Question Biol 113 Fall 2015 Assignment: Midterm-1-2015F 1. The three major domains of life are archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes. plants, animals, and protists. eukaryotes, prokaryotes, and animals. eukaryotes, prokaryotes, and fungi. bacteria, fungi, and eukaryotes. 2. Organic molecules always contain hydrogen. are always food molecules. are found only in organisms, hence their name. always contain carbon. always contain carbon and hydrogen. 3. Which of the following structures are NOT found in the cytoplasm? lysosome chromosomes nucleus mitochondria chloroplast 4. The nucleolus contains DNA and is found in the cytoplasm. contains RNA and is found in the nucleus. contains DNA and is found in the nucleus. contains ribosome subunits and is found in the cytoplasm. contains RNA and is found in the cytoplasm. 5. Some students consume large amounts of coffee and so-called energy drinks to help them stay alert when studying. You notice that many who engage in this practice seem to do poorly on exams. Suppose you want to investigate the relationship between caffeine consumption and exam performance. Which of the following statements would be an appropriate hypothesis? Students who consume large amounts of caffeine while studying will have lower exam scores than those who consume less caffeine. Many students consume large amounts of caffeine while studying. Caffeine increases alertness but also increases anxiety. One should avoid consuming too much caffeine while studying. Too much caffeine is harmful to your health. 6. When a substance moves from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration while using energy, the process is termed pinocytosis. facilitated diffusion. active transport. osmosis. diffusion. 7. Which of the following is a prokaryotic cell? plant cell bacterium liver cell muscle cell paramecium 8. Both plant and animal cells have mitochondria because they both have a large central vacuole. need ATP for energy. have lysosomal hydrolytic enzymes. carry on photosynthesis. have endoplasmic reticulum. 9. Two molecules of glucose combine to form a disaccharide molecule during a(n) ________ reaction. hydrolysis ionic bond hydrogen bond inert dehydration 10. Which of the following types of lipid is the most abundant constituent of cell membranes? phospholipid fat neutral fat triglyceride cholesterol phospholipid 11. Compared with a eukaryotic cell, a prokaryotic cell has no method of movement. lacks organelles beyond ribosomes. is larger. does not require energy. is not living. 12. The backbone of a nucleic acid strand is composed of glycerol. alternating pentose sugars and phosphate groups. “R” groups. nitrogenous bases. alternating adenines and thymines. 13. Which nutrient source is the easiest one for humans to breakdown and form ATP? glucose chitin cellulose protein phospholipids 14. Ribosomes are composed of only protein. RNA and protein. DNA and protein. DNA and RNA. only DNA. 15. DNA codes for the sequence of amino acids in the primary structure of a protein, but not for sugars or lipids. This is because sugars and lipids are ever present in the living environment and are not used in living structures. sugars and lipids code for their own replication. other hereditary molecules code for sugars and lipids. only proteins are involved in living metabolic reactions. proteins are the main structural and functional components of cells. 16. The final shape of a protein is very important to its function. When proteins undergo an irreversible change in shape called ________________ they ________________ perform their usual functions. dehydration reaction/cannot naturation/can naturation/cannot denaturation/can denaturation/cannot 17. Which answer choice lists the steps of the scientific method in the correct order? observation, experiment, hypothesis, conclusion, scientific theory conclusion, hypothesis, observation, experiment, scientific theory scientific theory, conclusion, hypothesis, experiment, observation hypothesis, observation, experiment, conclusion, scientific theory observation, hypothesis, experiment, conclusion, scientific theory 18. Which of these is present in plant, but not animal, cells? cell membrane centrioles Golgi apparatus nucleus chloroplasts 19. Hemoglobin is a protein composed of two pairs of polypeptide chains. What is the highest level of protein structure represented in hemoglobin? molecular tertiary quaternary secondary primary 20. Mitochondria are bounded by a double membrane. The inner filled space is called the matrix which contains ______________ that break down carbohydrate products, releasing _______________ to be used for ATP production. enzymes/energy DNA/energy RNA/energy ribosomes/carbon dioxide 21. Macrophages, a type of white blood cells, are able to remove bacteria from our bloodstream and tissues by osmosis. passive transport. phagocytosis. facilitated diffusion. pinocytosis. 22. The ____ will store pigments and toxins in plant cells. mitochondria chloroplast lysosomes vacuole peroxisomes 23. All carbohydrate molecules are organic acids. are composed of atoms of C, H, and the functional group -OH. contain nitrogen and phosphate. contain amino acids. are composed of atoms of C, H, O, and N. 24. When a lysosome fuses with a vacuole, protein synthesis begins. they both return to the Golgi apparatus. they both disappear. its contents are digested. division begins. 25. If a new anti-cancer drug is found effective in initial tests with mice, what do researchers conclude? The drug is effective in the mouse model; it must still be tested in humans. The effect of the drug on mice has no bearing on the effect of the drug on humans. The mice have provided a positive control in this experiment that proves the drug is effective in humans. If the drug was effective in a small proportion of mice, it will be effective in a small proportion of humans. If the drug was effective in a large number of mice, it will therefore be effective in humans. 26. Certain individuals with a Y chromosome develop into females because testosterone is not able to induce the formation of male sexual characteristics. This is most likely due to a defect in the receptor the Y chromosome the transduction pathway the signaling molecule the target protein 27. Which statement concerning reproduction is false? The offspring of asexual organisms have the same genes as the single parent. Hereditary information is passed on to the next generation. The offspring of sexual organisms have roughly one half of the genes from each parent. Hereditary information is in the form of genes. The offspring of multicellular organisms tend to be identical to the parent. 28. Carrier molecules are required for facilitated diffusion. osmosis. both facilitated diffusion AND active transport. active transport. both osmosis AND diffusion. 29. If a cell lacked ribosomes, it would NOT be able to form a spindle apparatus. synthesize proteins. form a Golgi vesicle. hydrolyze fat. respire. 30. Which of these combinations would be found in a nucleotide? DNA-RNA-nucleus sugar-protein-fat base-sugar-phosphate adenine-thymine-uracil base-acid-salt 31. Which function does the lipid bilayer component of the plasma membrane NOT provide for the cell? provides a fluid and flexible boundary that insulates the interior from the variations in humidity, food, and other external conditions provides a matrix for the placement of proteins that regulate the exchange of molecules between the inside and outside of the cell controls the exchange of molecules between one cell and adjacent cells or the environment defines a permeable boundary between the organized interior and the chaotic external environment provides an impermeable, self-sealing membrane that keeps all internal living processes sealed inside 32. You are conducting an experiment to determine what concentration of disinfectant is most effective in killing bacteria. In this example, the concentration of disinfectant would represent the response variable. hypothesis. control. data. experimental variable. 33. Enzymes are organic compounds classified as carbohydrates. proteins. nucleic acids. lipids. steroids. 34. According to cell theory new cells arise only from preexisting cells. a multicellular organism is composed of many cells. the smallest unit of life is a nucleus. all organisms are composed of tissues. animals but not plants are composed of cells. 35. A researcher samples the waters of the boiling hot springs in Yellowstone National Park. Under the microscope, she observes what appear to be living cells in the water. If these indeed are living cells, what type of cell would they most likely be? eukaryotic, animal eukaryotic, fungi eukaryotic, plant prokaryotic, bacteria prokaryotic, archaea 36. Which statement is false regarding science? Correct scientific conclusions are permanent and never subject to change or refinement. Science helps us to understand the natural world. Information is gained by observing and testing. Information is gathered by scientific methods. Science strives to be objective rather than subjective. 37. Which of the following factors could cause the cell membrane to become less permeable? If the channel proteins were to denature and become inactive. If the size of the protein channel was to increase. If the molecules trying to enter the cell were decreased in size. If the hydrophilic head of the phospholipids were to become hydrophobic while the hydrophobic tails become hydrophilic. All of these choices would cause the cell membrane to become less permeable. 38. What type of bond will connect the amino acids in a protein? triple covalent polar covalent ionic double covalent peptide 39. Which sequence correctly lists the different levels of biological organization, from the smallest and simplest to the largest and most complex? cells-tissues-organs-organ systems-organisms tissues-cells-organs-organ systems-organism cells-organs-tissues-organ systems-organism tissues-organs-organ systems-organisms-cells cells-tissues-organ systems-organs-organism 40. ____ is a polysaccharide that is found in plant cell walls and accounts for their strength. Starch Cellulose Glycogen Chitin Cholesterol 41. The primary function of carbohydrates is to transport molecules across cell membranes. encoding the hereditary information. to speed chemical reactions in cells. quick fuel and short-term energy storage. structural reinforcement of plant and fungal cell walls. 42. According to the fluid-mosaic model of membrane structure, proteins float inside or within the phospholipid bilayer. glycolipids form a mosaic pattern inside the cell. only lipids are found in the membrane. cholesterol is the main constituent of the membrane. proteins make up the bulk of the membrane. 43. During photosynthesis, solar energy is converted to chemical energy by the chloroplasts. The process is represented by: carbohydrate + carbon dioxide = oxygen + water + energy carbohydrate + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water + energy solar energy + carbon dioxide + water = carbohydrate + oxygen solar energy + oxygen + water = carbohydrate + oxygen solar energy = carbohydrate + oxygen 44. If a cell lacks ATP, which of the following processes would cease to operate immediately? osmosis diffusion facilitated diffusion tonicity sodium/potassium pump 45. Which cellular structure is responsible for packaging materials with the cell? Golgi apparatus mitochondria lysosomes ribosomes chloroplasts 46. Which of the following molecules add stiffness and strength to the plasma membrane? glycoproteins enzymatic proteins phosphate groups phospholipids cholesterol 47. Which of the following refers to materials only leaving the cell? exocytosis phagocytosis pinocytosis diffusion endocytosis 48. Which nuclear structure(s) contain(s) the hereditary material? nucleoplasm chromatin chloroplasts nuclear envelope mitochondria 49. The number of mitochondria in a cell would be a general indicator of the extent of osmosis. facilitated transport. both osmosis and diffusion. active transport. diffusion. 50. The bones in a bird are hollow, reducing its weight for flight. This is an example of which characteristic of life? Living things are homeostatic. Living things reproduce. Living things acquire materials and energy from the environment. Living things grow and develop. Living things are adapted.
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