Posted: November 10th, 2015

Final questions

Final questions

1. Useful theories
A. lead to practical solutions to problems
B. provide researchers with many testable hypotheses
C. stimulate debate and research
D. all of the above
2. Random assignment is used to control for
A. Experimenter bias
B. The placebo effect
C. Selection bias
D. Participants bias
3. A _______ psychologist specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of mental and

behavioral disorders
A. Social   B. Development   C. Clinical   D. Cognitive
4. Which of the following psychologists is associated with the humanistic

A. Maslow   B. Darwin   C. Watson   D. Freud
5. The branch like extensions of neurons that act as receivers of signals from

other neurons are the
A. dendrites   B. axons   C. neurotransmitters   D. cell bodies
6. According to a growing consensus among trait theorists, there are _______ major

dimensions of personality
A. 3   B. 5   C. 7   D. 16
7. The electrical charge inside a neuron is about -70mV and is known as the blank

A. Action   B. Refractory   C. Resting   D. Impulse
8. An illusion is
A. an imaginary sensation   B. an impossible figure
C. a misperception of a real stimulus   D. a figure-ground reversal
9. Perception is the process we used to
A. organize and interpret stimuli   B. detect stimuli
C. gather information from the environment   D. retrieve information from

10. The process by which humans detect visual, auditory, and other stimuli is known

A. perception   B. transduction   C. sensation   D. threshold
11. Tactile is used in reference to the sense of
A. smell   B. balance   C. taste   D. touch
12. Which of the following best defines consciousness?
A. Awareness   B. Wakefulness   C. Perceptiveness   D. Rationality
13. Which type of sleep seems to a learning and memory?
A. Stage 1   B. Stage 2   C. Stage 3 and 4   D. REM sleep
14. Dreams are difficult to remember because most of them occurred during Stage 4

15. Which theory proposes that the purpose of sleep is to allow the body to test an

A. Restorative theory of sleep   B. Evolutionary theory of sleep
C. Adaptive theory of sleep     D. Circadian theory of sleep.
16. A dog’s salivation in response to a musical note is a(n) (conditioned,

unconditioned) response.
17. Punishment is roughly the same as negative reinforcement. (T/F)
18. Pavlov is associated with _______ conditioning.
A. Classical   B. Operant   C. Cognitive   D. Watsonian
19. Transforming information into a form that can be stored in memory is called

_______; bringing to mind the material that has been stored is called _______.
A. Encoding; decoding   B. Consolidation; retrieval
C. Consolidation; decoding   D. Encoding; retrieval
20. When you remember where you were an what you were doing when you received a

shocking piece of news, you are experiencing
A. flashbulb memory   B. sensory memory
C. semantic imagery   D. interference
21. The 1st step in the memory process is known as _______, when information is

transformed into a form that can be stored in short-term memory.
A. retrieval   B. storage   C. encoding   D. rehearsal
22. Using _______, a person removes an unpleasant memory from consciousness.
A. regression   B. traumatic amnesia   C. repression   D. degeneration
23. John uses a wastebasket to keep the door from closing. In solving his problem,

he was not hindered by
A. a heuristic   B. an algorithm   C. functional fixedness   D. mental set
24. An artificial neural network is a computer system that is designed to mimic
A. artificial intelligence   B. animal intelligence
C. human heuristics   D. human cognition
25. The mental category that represents a class or group of items that that share

common characteristics or attributes is called a(n)
A. image   B. concept   C. positive instance   D. prototype
26. The teenager’s personal fable includes all of the following except
A. a sense of personal uniqueness
B. belief that he or she is indestructible and protected from misfortune
C. belief that no one has ever felt so deeply before
D. feeling that he or she is always on stage
27. Assimilation is a process used with _______
A. new schemes   B. existing schemes.
C. positive responses   D. negative responses
28. Motives and move us toward goals. (T/F)
29. According to the text, emotions have all of the following except a _______

A. physical   B. cognitive   C. sensory   D. behavioral
30. Which of the following not true of the basic emotions?
A. reflected in distinctive facial expressions
B. found in all cultures
C. several hundred known to date
D. unlearned
31. A _______ is a state of tension or arousal brought about by an underlying need,

which motivates one to engage in behavior that will satisfy the need and reduce the

A. drive   B. balance stimulus   C. tension stimulus   D. homeostatic condition
32. According to Maslow, the need for love and affiliation is satisfied _______

basic biological needs and the need for safety.
A. instead of   B. before   C. at the same time as   D. after
33. Psychoanalysis is both a theory of personality and a therapy for the treatment

of psychological disorders. (T/F)
34. According to Freud, the sex instinct arises at (birth, puberty).
35. Humanistic psychologists would not say that
A. human nature is innately good
B. humans have a natural tendency toward self-actualization
C. humans have free will
D. researchers should focus primarily on observable behavior
36. A person’s unique pattern of behaving, thinking, and feeling is his or her
A. motivation   B. emotion   C. personality   D. cognition
37. Anxiety disorders are the least common of all psychological disorders. (T/F)
38. Somatoform disorders have physiological rather than psychological causes. (T/F)
39. Psychosis is loss of contact with reality. (T/F)
40. Major depression and bipolar disorder are examples of _______ disorders.
A. personality   B. psychotics   C. mood   D. emotional
41. In psychoanalysis, the technique whereby a client reveals every thought, idea,

or image that comes to mind is called _______; the clients attempt to avoid

revealing certain thoughts if called _______.
A. transference; resistance   B. free association; transference
C. revelation; transference   D. free association; resistance
42. Behavior therapies based on classical conditioning are used mainly to
A. shape new, more appropriate behaviors
B. rid people of fears and undesirable behaviors or habits
C. promote development of social skills
D. demonstrate appropriate behaviors
43. One must have a medical degree to become a
A. clinical psychologist   B. sociologist
C. psychiatrist   D. clinical psychologist, psychiatrist, or psychoanalyst
44. This therapy involves the application of principles of classical and operant

A. Gestalt therapy   B. behavior modification
C. psychoanalysis   D. humanistic therapy
45. The B in Albert Ellis’s ABC theory of rational emotive behavior therapy stands

for behavior.(T/F)
46. Which of the following statements about 1st impressions is false?
A. People usually pay closer attention to early information they receive about

a person than to later
B. Early information forms a framework through which later information is

C. First impressions often serve as self-fulfilling prophecies
D. The importance of 1st impressions is greatly overrated
47. Which of the following is not one of the 3 components of an attitude?
A. cognitive component   B. emotional component
C. physiological component   D. behavioral component
48. As the number of bystanders at an emergency increases, the probability that the

victim will receive help decreases. (T/F)
49. _______ are the attitudes and standards of behavior expected of members of a

particular group.
A. Values   B. Social rules   C. Social norms   D. Social postures
50. The terms stereotype and prejudice are actually different words for the same

thing. (T/F)


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