Posted: December 5th, 2016

When you have a True experiment it is because you have decided to assign to groups randomly.


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  • When designing an experiment a few decisions have to be made to decide the type of experiment it will be. When you have a True experiment it is because you have decided to assign to groups randomly. If this is not done then it will be either quasi-experiment or non-experiment. From here it must be decided if there is a control group/multiple measures or not. If there is multiple measures or a control group but nothing was assigned randomly then you have a quasi-experiment, “Under such circumstances, researchers have little control over the delivery of an intervention and have to plan an evaluation around a proposed intervention” (Eccles, Grimshaw, Campbell & Ramsay, pg.50, 2012).If there is no random assignment and no control group or multiple measures then you have a non-experiment
  • There are a variety of threats to acceptance of validity. Some of these threats which can cause results not to be accepted by peers can include (Types, n.d.):
  • Inappropriate selection of constructs or measures.
  • Insufficient data collected to make valid conclusions.
  • Measurement done in too few contexts.
  • Measurement done with too few measurement variables.
  • Too great a variation in data.
  • Inadequate selection of target subjects.
  • Complex interaction across constructs.
  • Subjects giving biased answers or trying to guess what they should say.
  • Experimental method not valid.
  • Operation of experiment not rigorous.


  • Reliability and validity are independent of each other. A measurement maybe valid but not reliable, or reliable but not valid. Torchim (2006) sees them instead of being distinct rather as a continuum. On one end is the situation where the concepts and methods of measurement are the same.


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