Posted: April 8th, 2015

Phonology and Pronunciation

Phonology and Pronunciation

Order Description

This task consists of three sections: please read the file (Task 1. Details and referencing)

(1) Compare the phonology of English and another language at the prosodic level. [ 800 words min ]
(2) Choose a group of learners. [300 words min]
(3) Select and evaluate one resource for teaching prosody to ESL/EFL learners. [800 words min]

For (1) The comparison should be between English and Arabic Language.

For (2) My group of learners in the future are students of high schools girls in Saudi Arabia.
Note that the background of learning English for this students are very weak. and lessons such as prosody it’s very difficult for these students.

for(3) Select and evaluate a resource for teaching prosody to ESL/EFL learners,I will send you with attached. one resource you should evaluate it and Consider the resource’s benefits and limitations in terms of Language and Learning and how could you modify/improve this resource?
( how modify it to be Suitable for high school students in Saudi Arabia I mean becomes a little easier.)

Please find attached files for more details:
* Task 1. Details and referencing.
* Structure of Task 1
* Preparation
* Resource for teaching prosody
* Some of the Readings

This task is in the form of a report. Please note that
sub-headings are useful. However, you should not include an introduction, conclusion, or contents page.

Task 1    (b) Guidelines

Please note that Task 1 and Task 3 follow the same framework, but have a different focus of analysis.

In both cases, you select a language to be compared with English. But in Task 1, the focus is only on Prosody (ie Word Stress, Rhythm and Intonation); and in Task 3, the focus is only on Phonemes.

When you are researching your selected L1 you should take the opportunity to gather data on both prosody and phonemes; but when you prepare Tasks 1 and 3, you will need to split the two.

(1) Compare the phonology of English and another language at the prosodic level
(2) Choose a group of learners
(3) Select and evaluate one resource for teaching prosody to ESL/EFL learners.


(1) Compare the phonology of English and another language at the prosodic level
You will find that there is a range of information available for word stress, some information on rhythm (sentence stress), but very little on intonation.

Include a section each on (a), (b) and (c). You may present (d) as a separate section, or integrate those points into (a), (b) and (c).

a) word stress
b) rhythm
c) intonation
d) points of difficulty for a learner of the selected language background.

(2) Choose a group of learners – either with whom you are already familiar, or students who you think you may be teaching in the future.

(3) Select and evaluate a resource for teaching prosody to ESL/EFL learners
You may look at print resources, online, and apps. Many have been cited in class; some are listed in your subject outline; and other links can be found in the Web section of UTSOnline. Additionally, you can browse the UTS library, other libraries, or the Bridge Bookshop (Suite 4, Level 3, 173-179 Broadway, Chippendale); and conduct web searches. If you are currently teaching, your institution and colleagues can provide other resources/links. If you are an international student, you may be able to obtain a photocopy of some pages of the textbook used in your country.

Consider the resource’s benefits and limitations in terms of Language and Learning.
Do not simply describe, but analyse/evaluate. Some of the following prompts may help.

What aspects or elements of prosody are presented? Are they relevant, comprehensible? Is the language real, realistic, appropriate? Is there dialogue/monologue? What kind of context is provided? Does this matter? What kind of visual support is there?

How is the prosody made salient? To what extent do materials/activities give students the opportunity to listen; to practise; to receive feedback; and if appropriate, to produce pronunciation in a communicative way? If you were learning a second language yourself, how would you respond to this kind of resource?

Overall, how could you modify/improve this resource?

a chapter from a book

a) If the book consists of chapters written by different authors, you do need to cite the chapter title and provide page numbers. See, for example, the chapter written by Honey in Learner English (edited by Swan and Smith, 1987).

• IN-TEXT citation:
(Honey 1987), together with the page number if there is a quote.

• REFERENCE LIST citation:
Honey, P. J. 1987, ‘Vietnamese speakers’, in M. Swan & B. Smith (eds),             Learner English, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 238-251.

b) If the book is written entirely by one author, you do not need to cite individual chapter titles, nor to give page numbers for the chapter.

REFERENCING (2):    Secondary citation

1. Why?
When producing academic papers, or professional reports, it is nearly always the case that when you cite someone else’s published ideas, you have read that publication yourself. Therefore all you need in your report is a direct primary citation. For example, if you are discussing the best age to introduce L2 learning, and you have read Baker 2007, all you need is a straightforward citation/reference of that work.

But there may be times when you have not actually read a publication yourself, but you see that someone else has. When this happens, you need to add a second layer of citation in your report – a secondary citation. For example, in Lightbown and Spada (2006), you may wish to cite their reference to Swain’s earlier ‘comprehensible output’ theory (1985).

2. How?
There are different ways to word a secondary citation: here are two options.

(i) Lightbown and Spada (2006, p. 48) explain* that Swain’s (1985) theory of             Comprehensible Output…            * cite/report/discuss whether, etc

(ii) Swain’s 1985 study (cited in Lightbown & Spada 2006, p. 48) argued** that….
** developed/constructed/proposed, etc

Please note:
– primary citation (L & S):         need to include the page number
– secondary citation (Swain):     need to include the year

3. When?
In ‘real life’ publication, whether academic or professional, it is expected that a writer has read any sources they cite. Exceptions are mainly when the work is old or hard to obtain. But in university assignments, we often use a mediating textbook – part of whose strength is to select and integrate all kinds of earlier studies. So, acknowledging this secondary level of citation becomes a small but necessary part of academic writing.

4. In the reference list

Which of the above two citations do you include:
(a) Lightbown and Spada 2006; or (b) Swain 1985?

Only the one which you have actually read: (a) Lightbown and Spada 2006.

REFERENCING (3):    UTS Harvard System [in table form only for clarity]

Six most common reference items:

1) Book
2) Chapter in an Edited Book
3) Journal Article
4) Web Document
5) Video
6) YouTube

• ‘Author’ may be a person or an institution.
• In cases of multiple authorship, cite every author.
• If there is no author, place the title first.
• If there is no date, place n.d. in the category of year.

(1) BOOK

Author    Year,    Title of Book,    if a later edition    Publisher,    City.
surname, initials        in italics,

Wearing, S.    2001,    Volunteer tourism: Experiences that make a difference,    2nd edn,    CABI Publishing,    New York.

• If the book has an editor, insert (ed.) or (eds) after the author’s name, eg Jones, G. M. (ed.).
• If the book is in a later edition (eg 2nd or 3rd), insert (eg) 2nd edn after the title of the book (and separate with commas).

(2) CHAPTER IN AN EDITED BOOK          add three categories

Author    Year,    Title of Chapter,    in    Name of editor(s),    Title of book,    Publisher,    City,    pp.
surname, initials        in single inverted commas            in italics

Clegg, S.    2003,    ‘Managing organization futures in a changing world of power/knowledge’,    in    H. Tsoukas & C. Knud (eds),     The Oxford handbook of organization theory,    Oxford University Press,    Oxford,    pp. 536-567.


Author    Year,      ‘Title of article’,    Name of journal,    vol.,    no.,    pp.
surname, initials        in single inverted     commas    in italics

Seaman, C.B, Mendonca, M.G. & Young-Mi, K.    2003,    ‘User evaluation and evolution of a prototype management tool’,    Transactions on Software Engineering,    vol. 29,    no. 9,    pp. 838-851.

• Many print journals are now also available online. Cite these journals as if they are print [ie, as (3) above].
• Note how the name of a journal is capitalised (differently from the title of an article).


Year,    Title,    Producer,    City,
date viewed,    URL.
surname + initials OR
organisation        in italics     [if known]    [if known]

Robertson, P.    2001,    Astronomy in the deep freeze,    Australian Academy of Science,    Can-berra,    viewed 1 April 2004, Electoral Commission    2002,    Federal election 2001,    Australian Electoral Commission,    Can-berra,    viewed 17 March 2004,


Title in italics    Year,    format,    Publisher,    City.

Community action    2003,    video recording,    Video Education Australasia,    Bendigo, Victoria.

• Video = video recording;      • Film = motion picture;
• DVD = DVD recording;          • CD-ROM = CD-ROM

(6) YOUTUBE video

Author     Year,    Title,
in italics    video recording,     date viewed,    URL.

Super Simple Songs    2010,    Santa, where are you?,    video recording,    viewed 17 May 2010,
• Author = the person who produced the video – not the person who posted it.
• If there is no author, use the title instead

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