linguistic 40 multiple choice questions
William Labov in his study of postvocalic /r/ found that sales persons at _________________ produces most /r/ in their ‘corrected’ speech.
Which of the following is a feature not shared by Pidgins/Creoles across the world?
SVO word order
Number marking system
Words from Portuguese
Resemblance to ancient languages
After the introduction of Bill 101 in Quebec, Canada in 1977, the French speakers were accommodating less, whereas the English speakers were accommodating more with the ‘outgroup’ speakers.
Research has shown that creation of new Pidgins is similar to how infants acquire language.
Which of the following aspects of Navajo language forces the Navajo children to pay more attention to the shapes of objects than their color?
Absence of color terms in Navajo
Availability of only two color terms in Navajo
The geographical location of the Navajo tribes
Presence of verbs that specifically signal the shape of objects
The courts in US have accepted ‘linguistic profiling’ as valid evidence in several court cases.
According to Chomsky’s Innateness Hypothesis, the curious similarities across Pidgins/Creoles all over the world can be accounted for by:
All Pidgins/Creoles originated from a common proto-language
All Pidgins/Creoles borrowed words from Portuguese through Portuguese sailors
Language Acquisition Device and the ‘Universal Grammar’ rules
None, there is no explanation for the similarities
Which of the two claims of Sapir-Whorf hypothesis explains the availability of hundreds of words for snow in Inuit and Sami languages?
The language we use influences our perception of the world.
The world around us is reflected in our language use.
Optionality in the use of plural forms in Yucatec Maya will result in its speakers
Paying less attention to the difference between ‘one’ object and ‘many objects’
Paying more attention to the difference between ‘one’ object and ‘many objects’
Paying equal attention to the difference between ‘one’ object and ‘many objects’
Which of the following procedures uses recorded voices of the same speaker speaking first in one dialect or language then in another, and the listeners are supposed to rate them?
Dr. John Baugh’s study on linguistic profiling found that people with non-standard accents are more likely to be denied renting an apartment just based on the way they sound.
Which of the following statements best summarizes the findings of Kay & Kempton (1984)?
The absence of different words for blue and green in Tarahumara largely affects the speakers’ perception of colors, whereas the presence of different words for blue and green in English do not impact their color perception.
The Tarahumara speakers fail to use the “real” scale of psychological distance between colors due to the absence of different words for blue and green in the language, whereas English speakers successfully use the “real” scale of psychological distance between colors due to the availability of different words for blue and green in English.
The availability of different words for blue and green in English blocks the English speakers’ use of the “real” scale of psychological distance between colors, whereas the absence of different words for blue and green in Tarahumara helps the speakers to use the “real” scale of psychological distance between colors.
Linguistic Relativity is the strong version of Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis.
Many Native American tribes who do not have the concept of tense in their language, but have ‘evidentials’ pay more attention to the source of information than the time when the event took place.
In Tok Pisin, the English word ‘been’ has been reanalyzed as ‘bin’ the present tense marker.
Which of the following dialects of American English is believed to have evolved as a Pidgin, then became a Creole and was later de-creolized.
African-American vernacular English
Linguistic communities isolated from diverse urban populations are more likely to maintain their heritage language.
Silva-Corvalán (2004) found that the Hispanic population in the US has a negative attitude towards Spanish.
Of all the differences between a Pidgin and a Creole, which of the following is the most important factor that differentiates a Creole from a Pidgin?
Pidgins have a smaller vocabulary than Creoles
Creoles have a grammatical structure, but Pidgins may not
Creoles may be standardized and used in educations, but Pidgins are not standardized.
Creoles are spoken as L1, but Pidgins are spoken as L2.
Which of the following generations regrets the loss of the heritage language and may also take initiatives to relearn the language?
Based on the ratings of one of Dr. Preston’s study on perceptual dialectology which of the following statements is true?
New Yorkers were rated low for attributes like ‘education’, ‘ambition’, whereas Southern accents are rated low for ‘likeability’ and ‘friendliness’.
New Yorkers were rated high for attributes like ‘education’, ‘ambition’, whereas Southern accents are rated low for ‘likeability’ and ‘friendliness’
New Yorkers were rated high for attributes like ‘education’, ‘ambition’, whereas Southern accents are rated high for ‘likeability’ and ‘friendliness’.
New Yorkers were rated low for attributes like ‘education’, ‘ambition’, whereas Southern accents are rated high for ‘likeability’ and ‘friendliness’.
Lippi-Green (1997) in their study of language attitudes in Disney animated movies found that the accents of main characters are adjusted according to race, ethnicity, and geographical regions.
Which of the following statements best summarize the findings of the study conducted by Wallace Lambert and his colleagues in Montreal, Canada?
The French speakers have a positive attitude towards French, but have a stronger positive attitude towards English.
The French speakers have a negative attitude towards French, and a positive attitude towards English.
The English speakers have positive attitudes towards both French and English.
The English speakers have a negative attitude towards English, but a positive attitude towards French.
Both English and Russian consider ‘dark blue’ and ‘light blue’ as two distinct basic colors.
Prepositions like ‘bilong’ (Tok Pisin) can be found in early stage Pidgins.
Although Tahitian does not have a word for “sadness”, but the speakers do have a concept of being sad.
Which of the following Pidgin/Creole and Superstrate language pairs is not correct?
Haitian Creole – French
Gullah – English
Louisiana Creole – English
Krio – English
Which of the following Creoles is not an example of the Pidgin to Creole life cycle coming to an end?
Krio in Sierra Leone
Tok Pisin in Papua New Guinea
Jamaican Creole in Jamaica
Haitian Creole in Haiti
A Cora speaker would describe a book on the center of the table as ‘the book is on the summit of the table’.
Labov’s study found that use of postvocalic /r/ is a ‘prestige form’ and speakers from the lower socio-economic classes try to emulate it.
In Pidgins/Creoles use of the same word as different parts of speech is referred to as:
After the language shift from Hungarian to German in Oberwat, now the only domain in which Hungarian is used by the younger generation is:
Talking to parents
Talking to friends
Silva-Corvalán (2004) found that even with a huge Hispanic population in the Southwest of US, the use of Spanish among the Hispanic population is declining. However, the most important factor that maintains the use of Spanish in the Southwest is:
Availability of entertainment in Spanish like TV and radio
Availability of Spanish schools
Use of Spanish in government documents
Regular in-migration from Central and South America
Which of the following is not a substrate language for Hawaiian Pidgin?
The idea that the different concepts present in a language are just different ways of combining a limited range of more basic concepts, is called:
In Tok Pisisn, yutupela ‘you-two-fellows’ –> yuta (‘yutupela’ becoming ‘yuta’ is an example of which of the following processes?
Reduction of size of words
Formation of specialized pronouns
What factor has influenced Cora speakers’ use of words like ‘summit’, ‘slope’, and ‘foot’ to express the location of objects?
The grammar of Cora language
The landscape of the region where the tribe lived
The tribal practices and rituals
Lack of concept of cardinal directions in Cora
Based on Lee & Suarez (2009)’s findings, which of the following statement is not true?
Higher Korean proficiency among Korean immigrant children helps them to develop a better concept of self and a better self-esteem.
Korean immigrant children with higher Korean proficiency get confused about their bi-cultural identities.
Korean immigrant children with higher Korean proficiency identify better with both Korean and American cultures.
Higher Korean proficiency among Korean immigrant children does not decrease their sense of ‘Americanness’.
Due to the continual use of cardinal directions to locate objects, Tzotzil speakers have developed a better sense of space and direction than English speakers.
Which Creole of the following Creoles has been standardized and is used as an official language?
Krio in Sierra Leone
Tok Pisin in Papua New Guinea
Jamaican Creole in Jamaica
Haitian Creole in Haiti
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