51) Which of the following explains why Alexander failed to carry his empire as far as the Ganges in India? A) He lacked the financial resources to accomplish the task. B) His troops mutinied. C) The Persian forces overwhelmed his troops. D) He died before he could reach India. 52) Which of the following empires began as city-states? A) Egyptian and Persian B) Mesopotamian and Egyptian C) Macedonian and Greek D) Mesopotamian and Greek 53) The city of Rome was founded in approximately: A) 753 B.C.E. B) 241 B.C.E. C) 509 B.C.E. D) 405 B.C.E. 54) Carthage: A) was eventually defeated by Rome, but was given an honored place within the empire. B) had little military success when Hannibal invaded Italy. C) lost all three Punic Wars. D) lay nearly 800 miles away from Italy. GED 130 Introduciton to Civilization Final Examination 55) The Roman patron-client relationship: A) defined a state of reciprocity between the weak and the strong. B) applied primarily to the business sector. C) allowed for an approximate equality between people of different classes. D) led to the end of the role of the paterfamilias. 56) The triumvirate formed in 60 B.C.E. did NOT include this man: A) Crassus B) Pompey C) Tiberius D) Julius Caesar 57) Rome?s armies: A) required few male citizens to actually serve in it. B) were often made up in part by men from conquered regions. C) were paid for primarily by taxes on Roman citizens. D) spent little time developing new technology. 58) The belief system of Rome: A) prohibited paganism. B) did not allow any holidays. C) incorporated Christianity within a few decades of the death of Jesus. D) centered on the emperor as a god. 59) The Silk Road linked which of the following cities? A) Sarapion and Asabon B) Luoyang and Bactra C) Antioch and Alexandria D) Luoyang and Guangzhou 60) The fall of the Roman Empire: A) did not occur, according to most historians, until the Byzantine Empire was destroyed in 1453. B) was due primarily to the disrupting influence of Christianity. C) occurred despite solid leadership over the final 200 years. D) was hastened by the actions of Germanic peoples. GED 130 Introduction to Civilization Final Examination 61) Confucius: A) felt that some people were born evil and could not be changed. B) was made a high ranking advisor to a Chinese leader. C) lived during the period of the Warring States. D) had little lasting impact on the conduct of government in China. 62) Daoism: A) was developed primarily to guide statesmen. B) is quite similar to Confucianism. C) presents a detailed set of formal rules to guide society. D) stresses a closeness to the natural world. 63) The Mandate of Heaven: A) could allow a dynasty to rule forever. B) was a personal god worshipped by emperors. C) showed it was pleased by creating natural disasters. D) blessed moral rulers. 64) Over the course of the Han dynasty, this group rose to the top of the social and political hierarchy: A) generals B) priests C) scholars D) merchants 65) Regarding economic policy of the Han empire, it is true that: A) Confucians opposed military expansion in part because it was so costly. B) the empire had to make do with what it had when it was founded, since no new sources of wealth were discovered. C) Emperor Wu cut taxes. D) Han emperors refused to nationalize private enterprise. 66) The Tang dynasty: A) made major changes in the policies of the previous dynasty. B) abandoned the imperial examination system. C) presided during a major flowering of Chinese poetry. D) persecuted Buddhism. GED 130 Introduciton to Civilization Final Examination 67) Japan: A) modeled its art on that of the southeast Asian islands. B) accepted the cultural hegemony of China. C) was careful to keep its borders closed to immigrants during its early years. D) was conquered twice by China. 68) The Aryan peoples in India: A) spoke a Semitic language. B) first arrived in the Indus valley in 1000 B.C.E. C) were expelled from the region by the Maurya dynasty. D) formed political groupings called janapadas. 69) Which of the following was written first? A) the Bhagavad-Gita B) the Mahabharata and Ramayana C) the Puranas D) Sangam poetry 70) The Kushana: A) were supporters of Buddhism. B) invaded India just prior to the rule of the Mauryan family. C) left no artifacts traceable to the time of their rule. D) came from the Iranian plateau. 71) India?s ?adivasis?: A) usually live in the less-accessible areas B) have rarely been able to assert any independence. C) farm some of India?s richest soil. D) are well described in ancient historical records. 72) Funan: A) controlled only a small area around the mouth of the Mekong River. B) encouraged Hinduism. C) built Angkor Wat. D) did not allow the influence of Buddhism into its territory. GED 130 Introduction to Civilization Final Examination 73) Asoka?s empire: A) was not described in known historical records until a find about 100 years ago. B) was overthrown by barbarian invasions from the north. C) expelled many Hindus. D) included the island of Sri Lanka. 74) The oldest religion still in practice is: A) Hinduism. B) Christianity. C) Judaism. D) Buddhism. 75) The caste system in India: A) is officially sanctioned by the Rigveda. B) has no relevance in the India of today. C) does not provide for a soldier class. D) officially provides for six castes. 76) The Puranas focus least on this: A) stories of gods B) stories of goddesses C) the deep philosophical concepts of Hinduism D) folk tales 77) Mahayana Buddhism: A) never presented a serious challenge to Theravada Buddhism. B) believed in the bodhisattva concept. C) took its name from the Sanskrit term for ?lesser vehicle?. D) argued there was no heaven. 78) Hinduism and Buddhism were similar in all of the following aspects, except: A) the degree of respect they gave to brahmins. B) their development of sacred languages. C) their belief in reincarnation. D) their place of origin. GED 130 Introduciton to Civilization Final Examination 79) The Buddhist center furthest from the site of Buddha?s enlightenment is located in: A) Kandy B) Bamiyan. C) Kotabangun. D) Edo. 80) Jesus? most important commandment was to: A) honor your father and mother. B) love your neighbor. C) give to the poor. D) love God. 81) Paul: A) opposed slavery in both principle and practice. B) sought to subordinate women in the church. C) was Jesus? most devoted disciple in the years prior to Jesus? death. D) felt that married clergy were closer to God than single clergy. 82) Which of the following Jewish groups stayed aloof from politics and preached that the end of the world was imminent? A) Essenes B) Sadducees C) Pharisees D) Zealots 83) Monasteries: A) were, after the Council of Nicea, exclusively for men. B) were often located in urban areas. C) tended to be complex political organizations. D) usually contained members who were celibate. 84) In the eighth century, the advance of Islam into Europe was: A) most rapid in Scandinavia. B) most rapid in Italy. C) stopped in southern France by Charles Martel. D) of little consequence for the Catholic Church. GED 130 Introduction to Civilization Final Examination 85) Which of the following areas was NOT a major area of strength for Roman Catholicism in the year 1200? A) France B) Kievan Russia C) Germany D) Italy 86) Muslims begin their calendar with this event: A) the birth of Muhammad. B) the birth of Abraham. C) the death of Muhammad. D) the date Muhammad moved to Medina. 87) Abu Bakr: A) ruled for nearly 30 years. B) was a direct descendent of Muhammad. C) was the fi rst caliph. D) refused to use force to keep recent converts faithful to Islam. 88) The campaigns of Genghis Khan extended as far west as: A) the Caucasus Mountains. B) Kaifeng. C) Ain Jalut. D) Liegnitz. 89) Ibn Khaldun held all of the following views, except: A) the only differences between Westerners and Easterners are cultural, not innate. B) tensions between peoples is often related to class. C) nomadic peoples tended to conquer urban peoples. D) scholars are often the wisest rulers. 90) Use of the decimal system and the zero was first developed by the: A) Indians. B) Greeks. C) Arabs. D) Turks. GED 130 Introduciton to Civilization Final Examination 91) Before 1500 C.E., the greatest part of the exchange economy consisted of: A) international trade. B) local transactions. C) long-distance transactions. D) medium-distance transactions. 92) West African trade: A) was conducted primarily by sailing ship. B) was centered in Great Zimbabwe. C) was dependent upon the camel to deliver goods to Europe. D) is extensively documented for the period from about 200 C.E. to about 700 C.E. 93) After the ninth century, Arabs provided the main trading link between East Africa and: A) West Africa. B) the Indian Ocean. C) the Europe. D) the Americas. 94) The primary focus of Polynesian sailors was: A) to establish an empire in the Pacifi c. B) to establish a trade system throughout the Pacifi c. C) to locate new places in which to settle. D) to explore the Pacifi c Ocean. 95) The bubonic plague: A) was spread primarily due to the activities of the Mongols. B) never reached China. C) had less effect in Europe than in other places where the disease struck. D) is transmitted by fl ies. 96) The Annales school of history: A) was named for a Parisian cafaccent(e) frequented by French historians: the Cafaccent(e) des Annales. B) published a journal edited by historians for historians. C) was centered in the University of Paris. D) emphasized an interdisciplinary approach to history. GED 130 Introduction to Civilization Final Examination 97) In the high Middle Ages, most European Jews: A) lived freely among Christians. B) sought to return to ancient Israel and Judea. C) were forbidden to loan money. D) were often successful traders. 98) Prince Henry the Navigator established a center for the study of navigation in order to: A) control the eastern coast of Africa. B) chart the oceans. C) end Muslim control of the southern shores of the Mediterranean. D) discover new lands. 99) Which of the following explorers was the first to clearly recognize that Columbus had NOT discovered a route to Asia? A) Vasco Nutilde(n)ez de Balboa B) Vasco de Gama C) Amerigo Vespucci D) Bartolomeo Dias 100) The sea voyages of exploration and discovery: A) were spearheaded by the prosperous Italian city-states. B) began with Columbus? discovery of America. C) included the first round-the-world voyage by Ferdinand Magellan in the first half of the sixteenth century. D) were
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