In fact even �market­based� instruments are designed through regulations (a point worth making) but the question assumes a commonly held political distinction between regulations which prescribe particular outcomes in terms of performance or technology used and �market­based� instruments that leave it to individual companies to make decisions on the basis of the financial pull of the market trading

As usual you should begin by explaining key terms, which in this case forms a central part of the essay answer. You will need to define �market based� and �regulatory�, giving examples. In fact even �market­based� instruments are designed through regulations (a point worth making) but the question assumes a commonly held political distinction between regulations which prescribe particular outcomes in terms of performance or technology used and �market­based� instruments that leave it to individual companies to make decisions on the basis of the financial pull of the market trading. You will need to go through the arguments on both sides of this debate, using some examples. Then you can have a discussion about the merits and reach a conclusion that answers the question. Blumstein C, Green R, 2008, Electricity and Energy Policy in Britain, France and the United States since 1945, JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC LITERATURE, Vol: 46, Pages: 1024­1026 Sugandha D. Tuladhar*, Sebastian Mankowski*, and Paul Bernstein* (2014) �Interaction Effects of Market­Based and Command­and­Control Policies�, The Energy Journal, Vol. 35, pp 61­88, https://www.rggi.org/docs/ProgramReview/2016/11­17­ 15/Comments/Sierra_Club_Combined_Comments.pdf#page=77 Goulder, L., (2013) �Markets for Pollution Allowances: What Are the (New) Lessons?�, Journal of Economics Perspectives, Vol 27 no 1, pp87­102 Clean Air Strategic Alliance, (2011) Policy Instruments, Canadian Province of Alberta, https://dwb.unl.edu/teacher/nsf/c09/c09links/www.casahome.org/policy.htm Green R, Yatchew A, 2012, Support Schemes for Renewable Energy: An Economic Analysis, ECONOMICS OF ENERGY & ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY, Vol: 1, Pages: 83­98 Jacobs, D., (2014) � �Policy invention as evolutionary tinkering and codification: the emergence of feed­in tariffs for renewable electricity�, Environmental Politics, Vol 23 No5 pp 755­773 Jordan, A., Wurzel, R., Zito, A., (2003) ‘New’ Instruments of Environmental Governance: Patterns and Pathways of Change, Environmental Politics, Volume 12, Issue 1,, p201­224 Sorrell, Steven and Boemare; P. Quiron, C (2003) Tensions between national trading schemes in Europe and the proposed EU Directive ? a comparison between the UK and France. Climate Policy, 3 (S2) Also in Scrase and Mackerron �Energy Future�, Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan see chapter on �Carbon Trading� by Steven Sorrell Toke, D., (2008) �The EU Renewables Directive ­ what is the fuss about trading?� Energy Policy, Vol 36, 2991� 2998

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