Posted: December 8th, 2015

Making some PowerPoint slides about a chemical project on given information


Making some PowerPoint slides about a chemical project . This need to be done perfectly and professionally.

No more than 3 powerpoint slides



Three slides required:

1.Our Product (background). (Slide 1)

2.How it works. (Slide 2)

3. What makes it different than other products (Neuter)? (Slide 3)


Use information from the paragraphs below, wanted to be highly organized and short in the power point.


The idea behind our product was to design a stain remover for everyday carpet stains, such as blood, egg, coffee, mud, olive oil, etc. Each component of the product needed to have qualities that could be marketed as being “green”. The possible qualities included coming from a sustainable source, being biodegradable, and not being harmful to the user. We began by asking “What exactly is a typical carpet stain?” Most stains consist of some substance which was spilled onto a material and is physically trapped by the weave or fibers of that material. Every stain has some variety of four different components which can be chemically/physically altered to remove the stain. These components include lipids (such as fatty acids), proteins, pigments, and non reactive particles (such as soil). The alterations occur by putting the appropriate substance in water, the substance interacting with the stain, and the production of water soluble particles that will leave the fabric surface.

Lipids can be removed using two unique processes. The first process is by adding a surfactant. A lipid consists of a long carbon chain with an acidic head, so it’s nonpolar character makes it insoluble in water. A surfactant does two different things: it makes water a more effective solvent and makes lipids soluble in water. The surfactant makes water a better solvent by decreasing the amount of hydrogen bonding that occurs between water molecules, allowing the solution to have a lower viscosity and spread out across the surface area of the stain. This increased amount of spreading increases the contact between water/cleaning ingredient and the stain. Surfactants have hydrophilic heads that will stick to the surface of the water. They also have hydrophobic tails that will be pushed away from the surface of the water and into the stain. This allows the stain to be broken up and the particles leftover from the stain “solvate” into the water in what is called a micelle. A micelle has all of the hydrophobic tails and the the stain particles in the center of a sphere that has the heads of the surfactant at the surface. Different surfactants are more effective at the different aspects of these two processes, so an ideal cleaning agent has multiple kinds of surfactants. For instance, some foam to create bubbles which lift dirt from the surface, while others emulsify the stain, breaking up clumps of lipids that are then more easily solvated. Surfactants do not clean very well in hard water (water containing metal ions). The reason for this is most surfactants have an ionic head that is more attracted to the ions in the water than the nonpolar tail is attracted to the stain. An ingredient called a builder is needed to attract these metal ions so that the surfactant can interact with only the stain.

The second way to remove lipids is to make the water more basic, which will neutralize the acidic lipids to make water soluble salts and water. Neutralization occurs by the high concentration of strong base accepting a proton from the acid. This is called a saponification reaction and is accomplished by the builder because it gives the water a high pH. The surfactant we used was Dr. Bronner’s Baby Unscented Pure-Castile Bar Soap. It is made from coconut oil, palm oil, and olive oil, each of which are natural, renewable resources. We used Borax, or sodium borate, as our builder. It is a naturally occurring mineral that is sourced from mines and classified by the organization Beyond Pesticides as a “low-toxicity, non-volatile mineral.” Another potential builder was sodium carbonate, but we did not use it because when it pairs with metal ions it comes out of solution and is deposited on the surface, making the stain worse. Borax sequesters the ions, meaning it holds onto the metal ions, but each substance stays in solution.

Large, water-insoluble proteins can be broken down into smaller, water soluble units by adding enzymes. They do this by breaking the bond between amino acids. The enzymes, called proteases, are similar to amylases and lipases, which catalyze a similar reaction for starches and fats, respectively. We used a powdered meat tenderizer as our enzyme source. It contains papain and bromelain, which are proteases that come from papaya and pineapple, respectively. Each of these sources are renewable and non-toxic. This ingredient contained salt and seasoning for flavoring meat, so our actual cleaning product would contain only the enzymes.

The pigments of stains are molecules that absorb light, which causes our eyes to see those light wavelengths which are not absorbed. An oxidation agent breaks up these molecules, called chomophores, which reduces their ability to absorb light so that we can no longer see the stain. Making the molecules smaller also increases their solubility in water, which helps to remove the stain rather than just hide the stain. We used hydrogen peroxide as our oxidizing agent. Though industrial processing is required to produce this compound, it is much more natural and healthy than it’s chlorine counterpart. Hydrogen peroxide reacts with the pigments to form oxygen and water, which is a very non-toxic reaction. Chlorine is very toxic and gives off nasty vapors, while hydrogen peroxide is odorless. We used liquid H2O2, but this would not be good in an actual product because it degrades over time and would render the enzymes, which are very sensitive, ineffective. Our actual product would contain sodium percarbonate, which reacts with water to produce hydrogen peroxide and sodium carbonate. Also, the enzymes and sodium percarbonate would be coated to protect the enzymes, but in water the coating would dissolve. This means our product would be purchased as a powder and then the user would dissolve it in water when it came time to clean.

Our builder would help to remove non reactive particles from the surface by imparting negative charge on the particles and the surface. The repulsion between the two keeps the soil particle from redepositing on the fabric.

We gave the cleaner a scent to mask any odor leftover from the stain. The scent would also make using the cleaner a more pleasurable experience. We used eucalyptus essential oil, which comes from the dried leaves of a eucalyptus tree.





Three slides required:

  1. Our Product (background). (Slide 1)


  1. How it works. (Slide 2)
  2. What makes it different than other products (Neuter)? (Slide 3)





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